Psalms Where God Is Called the King

These are psalms wherein God or the Lord is referred to as King.  An example would be “You are my King, O God” (Psalm 44:4) or “The Lord is King forever and ever” (Psalm 10:16).  In addition to the psalm number, the verse number of the specific location of “king” is cited.

This list does not include allusions to God being the king – “For the kingdom is the Lord’s”  (Psalm 22:28; see also Psalm 145:11, 12, 13), nor “the Lord reigns” (Psalm 93:1), nor “Your throne” (Psalm 93:2).  Allusions like these would be entirely appropriate for studying this subject, but would take more time to search out than I have now.

This list can be compared and contrasted with a list of royal psalms (wherein God is mentioned along with a king).



24:7, 8, 9, 10



47:2, 6, 7










A List of Royal Psalms

The Jewish Study Bible, in its notes on Psalm 2defines “royal psalms” as “those concerning kings.”  It goes on to say that “None [of them] mentions a specific king by name, and their origin and uses remain obscure.”  It also gives a “possible list of royal psalms” which is reproduced below.  To the original list I have added italicized elements.  The first to be noticed is that I added the verse citations for any explicit reference to the “king” that appears in the psalm.  Some of the psalms do not make explicit reference to the king as “king,” and, because of this, do not show a verse citation.

Psalm 2:6

Psalm 18:50

Psalm 20:9

Psalm 21:1, 7

Psalm 45:1, 5, 11, 13, 14, 15

*Psalm 61:6

*Psalm 63:11

Psalm 72:1

Psalm 89:18

Psalm 101

Psalm 110

Psalm 132

Psalm 144

*These verses were not on the original list but are included here because they are psalms that include an explicit reference to a “king” who is not God.  I did not include psalms where merely a synonym or allusion to the king appeared (such as Psalm 28, where a reference to “His anointed” occurs in verse 8).  

The original list is from The Jewish Study Bible, ed. by Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler, Oxford University Press (2004)  p. 1285

Herman Gunkel is a notable scholar of the Psalms.  For more on his classification (upon which the Jewish Study Bible‘s list would seem to be based), see this post.

Resources – Historicity of Jesus, His Life, and Resurrection

The following links give scholarly support that Jesus lived, was crucified, and was raised from the dead:

Richard Bauckham on Jesus and the Eyewitnesses: The Gospels as Eyewitness Testimony, posted August 13, 2009 (video 10:28) (search “richard bauckham” on for more)

Craig Blomberg on Can We Trust the Bible? posted October 28, 2011 (videos 10:02 and 9:21 and 7:55) (courtesy Faith Interface)  [Editorial note March 29, 2015: Sorry, but it appears the host no longer supports this page or site.]

Darrell Bock is interviewed by Jeremiah Johnston of the Christian Thinkers Society, posted  February 15, 2011, on Did Jesus Really Exist?

Gary Habermas lectures on Jesus’ Resurrection and Contemporary Criticism: An Apologetic | Part One (1989), Part Two (1990).  These were transcribed for the Criswell Theological Review.  (courtesy Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth)

Part 1: A Case for the Historicity of the Resurrection | Thinking Matters.  This is the first opening statement in a formal written debate between Stuart McEwing and Malcolm Trevena. The question of the debate is “Is the resurrection of Jesus fact or fiction?”

Chris Williams on Did Jesus Even Exist?-The Problematic Argument from Silence  (courtesy of Apologetics 315)

Peter Williams on New Evidence the Gospels were Based on Eyewitness Accounts (videos  53:46 and 8:46)  (courtesy of Thinking Matters)

N. T. Wright lectures on The Historicity of Jesus’ Resurrection, posted January 27, 2012; recorded March 16, 2007  (video 1:37:21) (courtesy of Christian Apologetics UK)

For more resources, see below for pingbacks from this blog.

Resources – Reliability of the Scriptures

The following links give scholarly support that the Scriptures we have are what was originally written:

The Gospels:

Craig Blomberg Talks About The Historical Reliability of John’s Gospel on the Janet Mefferd Show | Bible Geek Gone Wild

Craig Blomberg provides 59 Confirmed or Historically Probable Facts in the Gospel of John (source: Truthbomb Apologetics)  February 12, 2012

Mike Licona explains the As, Bs, Cs, Ds and Es of New Testament reliability « Wintery Knight (focuses on the four gospels)

Who Wrote the Gospels? by Timothy McGrew, presented January 23, 2012; uploaded February 7, 2012)  (video 1:22:15, power-point presentation with audio of speaker)  (courtesy of Apologetics 315 YouTube channel)

Undesigned Coincidences (evidence for the historicity of the Gospels) from Timothy McGrew (a 9:30 video presentation)

Are the New Testament Gospels Reliable? by Mark D. Roberts  (courtesy of Apologetics 315)

When Were The Gospels Written?  (courtesy of Apologetics 315)


84 Confirmed Facts in the Last 16 Chapters of the Book of Acts  (courtesy of Apologetics 315)

Gospels and Acts:

The Gospels and Acts as History by Dr. Timothy McGrew, presented November 7, 2011 for Reasonable Faith Belfast, uploaded December 7, 2011 (video 1:46:12; power-point presentation with audio of speaker).  This presentation repeats some of the information from Who Wrote the Gospels? above by the same author.

New Testament:

Modern Myth: All but 11 verses of the NT could be constructed from the writings of the early church fathers  (courtesy of Apologetics 315)

Has The New Testament Been Substantially Edited Since It Was First Penned?  (courtesy of Apologetics 315)

Ehrman Project (a web site offering scholarly refutation of Bart Ehrman’s views on reliability of the New Testament texts)

Is The Original New Testament Lost? :: A Dialogue with Dr. Bart Ehrman & Dr. Daniel Wallace (a two-hour debate on video)

Daniel Wallace describes his third debate with Bart Ehrman about the reliability of the New Testament in EHRMAN VS WALLACE: ROUND THREE, February 1, 2012; posted February 5, 2012 (courtesy of Parchment & Pen Blog)

Is What We Have Now What They Wrote Then? Audio and Video by Daniel B. Wallace  (courtesy of Apologetics 315)

The Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (Dallas, TX; Daniel B. Wallace, Director)


“Orality”, “Textuality” and the Material Evidence, January 31, 2012, blog post by Larry W. Hurtado

More Material Evidence on Reading in Roman Antiquity, February, 1, 2012, blog post by Larry W. Hurtado

Last updated February 15, 2012

Resources – Apologetics Sites

The following sites provide information and resources about the historicity of Jesus of Nazareth and His resurrection, as well as the reliability of the Bible.  (This focus matters most, though the sites often focus on other issues as well.)  I have rated the sites based on the quantity, quality, and focus of resources that each provides to the web visitor (focus means focus on Jesus and the Bible).


Apologetics 315 – Brian Auten


Gary Habermas – Gary Habermas (focuses on the evidence for the resurrection of Christ)

The John Ankerberg Show – (includes many video clips of leading biblical scholars)

Lee Strobel – Lee Strobel (a former atheist)

Library of Historical Apologetics – Tim McGrew and others

Ratio Christi – at the Ohio State University – Eric Chabot

Reasonable Faith – William Lane Craig (philosophical, theological, and historical)

Risen Jesus – Michael Licona (focuses on the evidence for the resurrection of Christ)

Truthbomb Apologetics


Alpha & Omega Ministries – James White – Various

Christian Apologetics UK – Frank Turek

Ehrman Project – (refutes the skepticism of Bart Ehrman; YouTube channel)

Fixed-Point Foundation – Larry Taunton

Josh McDowell – Josh McDowell (Campus Crusade for Christ evangelist and apologist)

Stand to Reason – Greg Koukl and others

The One-Minute Apologist – Bobby Conway (short videos addressing key apologetic topics)

The Poached Egg – Greg West

Ratio Christi – (a campus ministry)

Ravi Zacharias – Ravi Zacharias

True Free Thinker – Mariano Grinbank

The Veritas Forum

Word on Fire – Father Robert Barron

Worldview – Sean McDowell (son of Josh McDowell)

4Truth.Net – North American Missions Board of the Southern Baptist Convention

In addition to going directly to these sites, you can also find many instances of them on by searching on their names.  Some even have their own “YouTube Channel.”

Last updated April 7, 2012